Keeping your stuff secure in your digital life isn’t simple. This is, of course, true for your code, scripts, and financial accounts. But you can also be undone by bad information sources. That’s actually one topic in my Wiley/Sybex book, Linux Security Fundamentals, from which this article is excerpted.

You’ve got a strong and active interest in distinguishing between what’s real and what’s fake. Considering how much unreliable content is out there, making such distinctions might not be so simple. Many of the choices you make about your money, property, and attitudes will at least partly rely on information you encounter online, and you certainly don’t want to choose badly. So here’s where we’ll talk about ways you can test and validate content to avoid being a victim.

Think About the Source

Always carefully consider the source of the information you want to use. Be aware that businesses – both legitimate and not – will often populate web pages with content designed to channel readers toward a transaction of some kind. The kind of page content that’ll inspire the most transactions is not necessarily the same as content that will provide honest and accurate information. That’s not to say that private business websites are always inaccurate – or that nonprofit organizations always produce reliable content – but that you should take the source into account.

With that in mind, I suggest that you’re more likely to get accurate and helpful health information, for example, from the website of a well-known government agency like the UK’s Department of Health and Social Care or an academic health provider like the Mayo Clinic (https://www.mayoclinic.org/ ) than from a site called CheapCureZone.com (a fictitious name but representative of hundreds of real sites).

Similarly, you should consider the context of information you’re consuming. Did it come in an email message from someone you know? Were you expecting the email? Did you get to a particular web page based on a link in a different site? Do you trust that site?

By the way, I personally consider Wikipedia to be a mostly accurate and reliable information site that generally includes useful links to source material. Biased or flat-out wrong information will sometimes turn up on pages, but it’s rare, and, more often than not, problematic pages will contain warnings indicating that the content in its current state is being contested. And if you do find errors? Fix ’em yourself.

Be Aware of Common Threat Categories

Spam – unsolicited messages sent to your email address or phone – is a major problem. Besides the fact that the billions of spam messages transmitted daily consume a fortune in network bandwidth, they also carry thousands of varieties of dangerous malware and just plain waste our time.

Your first line of defense against spam is to make sure your email service’s spam filter is active. Your next step: educate yourself about the ways spammers use social engineering as part of their strategy.

Spoofing involves email messages that misrepresent the sender’s address and identity. You probably wouldn’t respond to an email from suspiciousguy@darkw3b.com , but if he presented himself as b.gates@microsoft.com , you might reconsider. At the least, recognize that email and web addresses can be faked. Organizations using DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) to confirm the actual source of each email message can be effective in the fight against spoofing.

Phishing attacks, which are often packaged with spoofed emails, involve criminals claiming to represent legitimate organizations like banks. A phishing email might contain a link to a website that looks like it belongs to, perhaps, your bank, but doesn’t. When you enter your credentials to log in, those credentials are captured by the website backend and then used to authenticate to the actual banking or service site using your identity. I don’t have to tell you how that can end.

Always carefully read the actual web address you’re following before clicking – or at the least, before providing authentication details. Spelling counts: gmall.com is not the same as gmail.com . Consider using multifactor authentication (MFA) for all your account logins. That way, besides protecting you from the unauthorized use of your passwords, you should ideally notice when you’re not prompted for the secondary authentication method and back away.

In general, be deeply suspicious of desperate requests for help and unsolicited job offers. Scammers often pretend to be relatives or close friends who have gotten into trouble while traveling and require a quick wire transfer. Job offers can sometimes mask attempts to access your bank account or launder fake checks written against legitimate businesses.

It’s a nasty and dangerous world out there. Think carefully. Ask questions. Seek a second opinion. Always remember this wise rule: “If it’s too good to be true, it probably isn’t.” And remember, the widow of Nigeria’s former defense minister does not want you to keep $34.54 million safe for her in your bank account. Really.

As I said, this article is an excerpt from my Wiley/Sybex Linux Security Fundamentals book. I’ve got plenty more tech goodness available through my books, courses, and articles.

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